Arthritis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the joints and their surrounding tissue - causing pain and stiffness. The severity and location of pain may depend on the type of arthritis, and symptoms may develop suddenly or gradually over time.
A bunion is a bony bump that forms on the inner border of the foot - typically due to long-term use of poorly-fitting shoes. Appropriately-fitted footwear is the best way to prevent bunions, but once formed they can be treated surgically.
Bursitis and tendonitis are two similar conditions characterized by painful inflammation of the cushioning tissue between bones and muscles (bursitis) or inflammation of the fibrous bands that connect muscle to bone (tendonitis). While bursitis is typically caused by physical trauma to the area, tendonitis is usually caused by long-term stress to the tendon - both can be treated with rest and anti-inflammatory medications.
Carpal tunnel syndrome refers to the pinching of the median nerve, which runs through the forearm and into the hand. With injury, stress from work, overuse, or a congenital predisposition, the nerve can become squeezed at the wrist - causing burning, tingling, itching, and shooting pains.
Degenerative Disc Disease
Degenerative disc disease, or degenerative disc disorder, occurs when discs of the spinal column begin to degenerate with age. Though disc degeneration may become worse over time, pain symptoms may improve.
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Deep vein thrombosis (or DVT) occurs when a blood clot forms within a vein deep inside the body - typically one within the legs. The blood clot can break off and travel to other parts of the body, cutting off blood flow and causing tissue and organ damage. Signs of DVT may include pain, swelling, and redness in the leg, though not all cases will show symptoms.
Facet joint syndrome - often called facet joints - refers to pain in the facet joints of the spine. The pain may extend into the buttocks and hips as well as upward into the head and neck, causing stiffness and pain when moving or arching the back. Facet joints can be caused by an injury, pinching of the nerves, or poor posture.
The term fibromyalgia refers to a collection of symptoms - widespread pain, sleep disturbance, abnormal pain processing, fatigue, and psychological distress - with no known cause. Medication and therapy can help control the disorder.
Fractures - of the shoulder, hip, hand, heel, foot, or elbow - occur when outside forces cause trauma to a bone and the stress causes the bone to break. Treatment and recovery time may depend on the location and severity of the fracture.
Gout is an inflammatory arthritic condition caused by an excess of uric acid in the body, and sufferers may experience flares of extreme symptoms based on diet, certain medications, and alcohol consumption. Symptoms include red, hot, and extremely swollen and painful joints - medication and lifestyle changes can help control the disease.
Herniated Disc/Slipped Disc
A herniated disc - also called a slipped disc - occurs when one of the cushioning, fluid-filled sacs located in between the vertebrae of the spine ruptures or "slips" out of place. A herniated disc can cause back pain, neck pain, muscle spasms, and tingling or numbness. Recovery may be slow, and symptoms can be eased with medication and physical therapy.
Hip pain can have a number of causes - including joint problems, muscle damage or weakness, tendon problems, or most commonly osteoarthritis. Pain can be caused by overuse of the muscle or tendon, injury, or wear-and-tear, and treatment will depend on the specific diagnosis.
Joint pain can occur at any age and have a number of causes - including muscle pain, rheumatoid or osteoarthritis, infectious diseases, or inflammation of the tendons or bursae cushioning the joint. The severity of pain and course of treatment may vary depending on the specific cause of pain.
Lower Back Pain
Lower back pain can have a number of causes - including joint problems, muscle strain, damage to the ligaments, or a slipped disc. Though prognosis and treatment will depend on the specific cause of back pain, many pain patients can find relief through medication and physical therapy.
The term osteoarthritis refers to a breakdown of bone and cartilage within the joints - most commonly the hips, knees, spine, and hands. The disease causes pain and joint stiffness and typically begins after age 40. Though there is no cure for osteoarthritis, medication and physical therapy can help control symptoms.
Osteogenic sarcoma (or osteosarcoma) is a malignant bone tumor usually diagnosed in children and adolescents - usually in the shins, knees, and upper arms. Symptoms may include pain, limited range of motion, fractures, and swelling. With treatment, most patients have a good chance of recovery.
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone caused by either bacteria or fungi. Symptoms include bone pain, discomfort, localized redness and swelling, and fever; recent trauma or diabetes can increase the risk of developing osteomyelitis.
Osteoporosis is a gradual thinning of bone tissue and loss of bone density over time. The disease is most common in women over the age of 50 and can result in frequent fractures, loss of height, stooped posture, and bone pain. A diet high in calcium during youth as well as weight-bearing exercise can help prevent osteoporosis, and the disease can be treated with medication and hormone replacement therapy.
Perthes disease occurs when the rounded end of the femur, or thigh bone, fitting into the hip joint dies - causing intense inflammation and pain in the hip. Perthes is most common in children between the ages of 4 and 10, and with treatment most recover within 18 months to 2 years.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Rheumatoid Arthritis (or RA) is an autoimmune condition characterized by inflammation of the joints - namely, the synovial membrane that lines them. The inflammation causes cartilage and bone in the joints to erode, leading to pain, swelling, stiffness, and joint deformities. The symptoms of RA can begin at any age, and medication, surgery, and exercise programs can help control the disease.
Sciatica is a condition characterized by irritation of the sciatic nerve, which runs from the lower back down through the legs. Sciatica causes pain, numbness, tingling, or burning sensations in the lower back and legs - the condition has a number of causes, and the course of treatment will depend on the underlying cause and severity of pain.
Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine that interferes with posture - causing the person to lean to one side or have uneven hips or shoulder. Scoliosis most commonly develops during adolescence, and spinal curvature may only be temporary. Severity of the condition can vary, and while some may not require treatment others may need a back brace or surgery.
Shin splints (or medial tibial stress syndrome) - is a condition characterized by pain and tenderness along the tibia - the larger bone in the front of the lower leg. Shin splints are usually caused by repetitive physical activity; rest, medication, and physical therapy are the most common treatment.
Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal column, putting pressure on the spinal cord and causing pain in the neck or back, weakness in the arms or legs, and numbness. Spinal stenosis mostly occurs in adults over age fifty, and physical therapy and medication can help ease symptoms.
A ruptured tendon occurs when extreme force or pressure causes a tendon to snap or break - resulting in extreme pain and sometimes permanent damage. A ruptured tendon may be treated with surgery or immobilization, depending on the location of the affected tendon.
The term "tennis elbow" refers to a painful inflammation of the tendons in the elbow - the condition is commonly caused by intense physical activity or overuse, such as playing tennis. Tennis elbow may be treated with rest, medication, and - in some cases - surgery.
Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex (TFCC)
A triangular fibrocartilage complex - or TFCC - injury involves damage to a network of cartilage on the outer side of the hand. TFCC injuries cause pain, swelling, and cracking sensations on the little-finger side of the hand, and they are usually caused by athletic activity or hand injuries.
Whiplash is a collection of symptoms usually experienced after the force of an automobile accident damages soft tissue in the neck - causing neck strain or neck sprains. Common symptoms of whiplash include neck pain, stiffness, headache, dizziness, and sometimes cognitive symptoms like memory loss or sleep disturbance. Most patients recover within a few weeks.